En ny artikel ”A Teachable Agent Game Engaging Primary School Children to Learn Arithmetic Concepts and Reasoning” har publicerats i en internationell tidskrift om intelligenta spel och andra digitala verktyg i skolmiljö: International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education av Springer
(eftersom artikeln publiceras internationellt, är den på engelska).
Abstrakt: In this paper we will describe a learning environment designed to foster conceptual understanding and reasoning in mathematics among younger school children. The learning environment consists of 48 2-player game variants based on a graphical model of arithmetic where the mathematical content is intrinsically interwoven with the game idea. The environment also features teachable agents, which are computer programs that can be taught and behave according to their knowledge. Thus, the environment provides both learning-by-doing (playing the game) and learning-by-teaching (teaching the agent to play). It differs from other learning-by-teaching systems 1) by targeting basic mathematics and primary grade students; 2) by using teachable agents as an extension to educational games in order to leverage engagement, reflection and learning; and 3) by using an agent-driven question dialogue to challenge students’ mathematical thinking, to role-model learner behaviour and to transfer game knowledge to out-of-game mathematics. The teachable agent game is described and evaluated in an authentic classroom study enrolling 443 students from 22 classes in 9 schools. Students range from 2nd to 6th grade of mainstream classes and 7th to 8th grade for students with difficulties in mathematics. Part of the study was designed as a quasi-experimental study with controls; part was designed to examine students’ change in mental models of arithmetic before and after game play. All students took pre- and post mathematics tests. The 314 playing students used the game and taught their agents during regular math-classes for three months, whereas the control classes attended standard instruction and took the tests. A questionnaire was distributed in the end of the study to investigate students’ perceptions and performances of the agent-tutoring task. Results show that 1) there is a significant learning gain for playing student compared to controls, 2) the learning environment can engage children in advanced mathematical thinking in early education, 3) that young primary students can act as successful tutors. Thus, we conclude that teachable agents is a candidate for leveraging learning in educational games to deeper levels that transfer outside the game. This idea combines the motivational power of games with the reflective power of a teachable agent asking though-provoking, deep questions on the learning material during game play.
Pareto, L. (2014). A Teachable Agent Game Engaging Primary School Children to Learn Arithmetic Concepts and Reasoning. In International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp 251-283. Springer New York.
Artikeln ”Mathematical Literacy for Everyone using Arithmetic games” har publicerats i en internationell tidskrift om barns hälsa och utveckling: International Journal on Child Health and Human Development av Nova publisher
Pareto, L. (2014). Mathematical Literacy for Everyone using Arithmetic Games. In International Journal on Child Health and Human Development; Volume 7(4). Special issue: Virtual and Augmented Reality Environments for People with Special Needs. Editors: Orly Lahav, Paul Sharkey and Joav Merrick.
Till ICDVRAT konferensen, 9th International Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality and Associated Technologies, in Laval, France, presenterade Lena Pareto följande artikel september 2012: Mathematical Literacy for everyone using Arithmetic Games (eftersom artikeln publiceras internationellt, är den på engelska).
Abstrakt: An innovative mathematics game shown to be effective for low-achieving mainstream students is tested in special education for learners with intellectual disabilities. The game relies on a graphical, intuitive representation for numbers and arithmetic operations to foster conceptual understanding and numbers sense, and provides a set of 2-player games to develop strategic thinking and reasoning skills. The game runs on computers and interactive white boards, and as an augmented reality application at a science centre. We compare its use in special education and mainstream education with respect to usage, performance levels and learning gain. The game has been used by teachers in special educations, with gains in mathematical understanding, strategic thinking and communication skills as effects. » För närvarande är endast abstraktet publicerat. Artikeln publiceras online den 15:e mars 2013 i ICDVRAT:s arkiv.
Ta del av Lena Paretos presentation: Mathematical Literacy for everyone using Arithmetic Games
I den vetenskapliga tidskriften Educational Technology Research and Development publiceras följande artikel 2012: A teachable-agent-based game affording collaboration and competition: evaluating math comprehension and motivation (eftersom artikeln publiceras internationellt, är den på engelska).
Abstrakt: This paper presents an educational game in mathematics based on an apprenticeship model using a teachable agent, as well as an evaluative study of how the game affects (1) conceptual understanding and (2) attitudes towards mathematics. In addition, we discuss how collaborative and competitive affordances of the game may affect understanding and motivation. 19 students played the game in pairs once a week during math lessons for 7 weeks (the game-playing group) while another 19 students followed the regular curriculum (the control group). Math comprehension scores increased significantly for the game-playing group but not the control group (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in attitude change between the two groups. Post hoc analyses indicated that game-playing primarily affected students’ confidence in explaining math to a peer, but not their enjoyment of doing so. Collaborative and competitive activities seem to carry a strong motivational influence for students to play the game. » Läs mer
Till AIED konferensen 15th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, in Auckland, Nya Zeeland, presenterade Annika Silvervarg (Linköping Universitet) och kollegorna Lena Pareto, Magnus Haake, Thomas Strandberg samt Agneta Gulz (Lund Universitet) följande artikel 2011: An Educational Math Game with a Teachable Agent and a Social Chat (eftersom artikeln publiceras internationellt, är den på engelska.)
Abstrakt: We present an educational math game, including a teachable agent and a social chat, that trains basic arithmetic skills with a focus on grounding base-ten concepts in spatial representations. It employs a board-game design with a variety of different sub-games, game modes and levels of difficulty. [...] In other words, the basic game with the TA contains a form of on-task conversation between agent and student. But the game architecture also has been extended with a chat where the student can engage in conversation with the TA, writing freely by means of the keyboard and bring up basically any topic in a chat-like manner. [...] One reason to include off-task conversation is to enrich the game and its motivational qualities for the age group in question (12-14 year olds). Another is to be able to explore whether such a conversational module can enable pedagogical interventions, such as supporting pupils math self efficacy and change negative attitudes toward math in general. » Läs mer
Till AIED konferensen 15th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, in Auckland, Nya Zeeland, presenterade kollegan Björn Sjödén tillsammans med Lena Pareto, Betty Tärning samt Agneta Gulz (Lund Universitet) följande artikel 2011: Transferring Teaching to Testing – An Unexplored Aspect of Teachable Agents (eftersom artikeln publiceras internationellt, är den på engelska.)
Abstrakt: The present study examined whether socio-motivational effects from working with a Teachable Agent (TA) might transfer from the formative learning phase to a summative test situation. Forty-nine students (9-10 years old) performed a digital pretest of math skills, then played a TA-based educational math game in school over a period of eight weeks. Thereafter, the students were divided into two groups, matched according to their pretest scores, and randomly assigned one of two posttest conditions: either with the TA present, or without the TA. Results showed that low-performers on the pretest improved significantly more on the posttest than did high-performers, but only when tested with the TA. We reason that low-performers might be more susceptible to a supportive social context – as provided by their TA – for performing well in a test situation. » Läs mer