En ny artikel ”A Teachable Agent Game Engaging Primary School Children to Learn Arithmetic Concepts and Reasoning” har publicerats i en internationell tidskrift om intelligenta spel och andra digitala verktyg i skolmiljö: International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education av Springer
(eftersom artikeln publiceras internationellt, är den på engelska).
Abstrakt: In this paper we will describe a learning environment designed to foster conceptual understanding and reasoning in mathematics among younger school children. The learning environment consists of 48 2-player game variants based on a graphical model of arithmetic where the mathematical content is intrinsically interwoven with the game idea. The environment also features teachable agents, which are computer programs that can be taught and behave according to their knowledge. Thus, the environment provides both learning-by-doing (playing the game) and learning-by-teaching (teaching the agent to play). It differs from other learning-by-teaching systems 1) by targeting basic mathematics and primary grade students; 2) by using teachable agents as an extension to educational games in order to leverage engagement, reflection and learning; and 3) by using an agent-driven question dialogue to challenge students’ mathematical thinking, to role-model learner behaviour and to transfer game knowledge to out-of-game mathematics. The teachable agent game is described and evaluated in an authentic classroom study enrolling 443 students from 22 classes in 9 schools. Students range from 2nd to 6th grade of mainstream classes and 7th to 8th grade for students with difficulties in mathematics. Part of the study was designed as a quasi-experimental study with controls; part was designed to examine students’ change in mental models of arithmetic before and after game play. All students took pre- and post mathematics tests. The 314 playing students used the game and taught their agents during regular math-classes for three months, whereas the control classes attended standard instruction and took the tests. A questionnaire was distributed in the end of the study to investigate students’ perceptions and performances of the agent-tutoring task. Results show that 1) there is a significant learning gain for playing student compared to controls, 2) the learning environment can engage children in advanced mathematical thinking in early education, 3) that young primary students can act as successful tutors. Thus, we conclude that teachable agents is a candidate for leveraging learning in educational games to deeper levels that transfer outside the game. This idea combines the motivational power of games with the reflective power of a teachable agent asking though-provoking, deep questions on the learning material during game play.
Pareto, L. (2014). A Teachable Agent Game Engaging Primary School Children to Learn Arithmetic Concepts and Reasoning. In International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp 251-283. Springer New York.
- Publicerat 2014, Sep 18
Artikeln ”Mathematical Literacy for Everyone using Arithmetic games” har publicerats i en internationell tidskrift om barns hälsa och utveckling: International Journal on Child Health and Human Development av Nova publisher
Pareto, L. (2014). Mathematical Literacy for Everyone using Arithmetic Games. In International Journal on Child Health and Human Development; Volume 7(4). Special issue: Virtual and Augmented Reality Environments for People with Special Needs. Editors: Orly Lahav, Paul Sharkey and Joav Merrick.
- Publicerat 2014, Sep 18
Till ICDVRAT konferensen, 9th International Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality and Associated Technologies, in Laval, France, presenterade Lena Pareto följande artikel september 2012: Mathematical Literacy for everyone using Arithmetic Games (eftersom artikeln publiceras internationellt, är den på engelska).
Abstrakt: An innovative mathematics game shown to be effective for low-achieving mainstream students is tested in special education for learners with intellectual disabilities. The game relies on a graphical, intuitive representation for numbers and arithmetic operations to foster conceptual understanding and numbers sense, and provides a set of 2-player games to develop strategic thinking and reasoning skills. The game runs on computers and interactive white boards, and as an augmented reality application at a science centre. We compare its use in special education and mainstream education with respect to usage, performance levels and learning gain. The game has been used by teachers in special educations, with gains in mathematical understanding, strategic thinking and communication skills as effects. » För närvarande är endast abstraktet publicerat. Artikeln publiceras online den 15:e mars 2013 i ICDVRAT:s arkiv.
Ta del av Lena Paretos presentation: Mathematical Literacy for everyone using Arithmetic Games
- Publicerat 2012, Sep 11
I den vetenskapliga tidskriften Educational Technology Research and Development publiceras följande artikel 2012: A teachable-agent-based game affording collaboration and competition: evaluating math comprehension and motivation (eftersom artikeln publiceras internationellt, är den på engelska).
Abstrakt: This paper presents an educational game in mathematics based on an apprenticeship model using a teachable agent, as well as an evaluative study of how the game affects (1) conceptual understanding and (2) attitudes towards mathematics. In addition, we discuss how collaborative and competitive affordances of the game may affect understanding and motivation. 19 students played the game in pairs once a week during math lessons for 7 weeks (the game-playing group) while another 19 students followed the regular curriculum (the control group). Math comprehension scores increased significantly for the game-playing group but not the control group (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in attitude change between the two groups. Post hoc analyses indicated that game-playing primarily affected students’ confidence in explaining math to a peer, but not their enjoyment of doing so. Collaborative and competitive activities seem to carry a strong motivational influence for students to play the game. » Läs mer
- Publicerat 2012, Maj 21
Till AIED konferensen 15th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, in Auckland, Nya Zeeland, presenterade Annika Silvervarg (Linköping Universitet) och kollegorna Lena Pareto, Magnus Haake, Thomas Strandberg samt Agneta Gulz (Lund Universitet) följande artikel 2011: An Educational Math Game with a Teachable Agent and a Social Chat (eftersom artikeln publiceras internationellt, är den på engelska.)
Abstrakt: We present an educational math game, including a teachable agent and a social chat, that trains basic arithmetic skills with a focus on grounding base-ten concepts in spatial representations. It employs a board-game design with a variety of different sub-games, game modes and levels of difficulty. [...] In other words, the basic game with the TA contains a form of on-task conversation between agent and student. But the game architecture also has been extended with a chat where the student can engage in conversation with the TA, writing freely by means of the keyboard and bring up basically any topic in a chat-like manner. [...] One reason to include off-task conversation is to enrich the game and its motivational qualities for the age group in question (12-14 year olds). Another is to be able to explore whether such a conversational module can enable pedagogical interventions, such as supporting pupils math self efficacy and change negative attitudes toward math in general. » Läs mer
- Publicerat 2011, Jun 27
Till AIED konferensen 15th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, in Auckland, Nya Zeeland, presenterade kollegan Björn Sjödén tillsammans med Lena Pareto, Betty Tärning samt Agneta Gulz (Lund Universitet) följande artikel 2011: Transferring Teaching to Testing – An Unexplored Aspect of Teachable Agents (eftersom artikeln publiceras internationellt, är den på engelska.)
Abstrakt: The present study examined whether socio-motivational effects from working with a Teachable Agent (TA) might transfer from the formative learning phase to a summative test situation. Forty-nine students (9-10 years old) performed a digital pretest of math skills, then played a TA-based educational math game in school over a period of eight weeks. Thereafter, the students were divided into two groups, matched according to their pretest scores, and randomly assigned one of two posttest conditions: either with the TA present, or without the TA. Results showed that low-performers on the pretest improved significantly more on the posttest than did high-performers, but only when tested with the TA. We reason that low-performers might be more susceptible to a supportive social context – as provided by their TA – for performing well in a test situation. » Läs mer
- Publicerat 2011, Jun 27
Till AIED konferensen 15th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, in Auckland, Nya Zeeland, presenterade Lena Pareto och kollegorna Tobias Arvemo (Högskolan Väst), Ylva Dahl (Uddevalla Skolor), Magnus Haake samt Agneta Gulz (Lund Universitet) följande artikel 2011 :A Teachable-Agent Arithmetic Game’s effects on Mathematics Understanding, Attitude and Self-Efficacy (eftersom artikeln publiceras internationellt, är den på engelska.)
Abstrakt: A teachable-agent arithmetic game is presented and evaluated in terms of student performance, attitude and self-efficacy. An experimental pre-post study design was used, enrolling 153 3rd and 5th grade students in Sweden. The playing group showed significantly larger gains in math performance and self-efficacy beliefs, but not in general attitude towards math, than the control groups. The contributions in relation to previous work include a new educational game being evaluated, and an emphasis on self-efficacy in the study as a strong predictor of math achievements. » Läs mer
- Publicerat 2011, Jun 27
Till EC-TEL konferensen 5th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, i Barcelona, Spanien, publicerades följande artikel 2010: The Complexity of Integrating Technology Enhanced Learning in Special Math Education: a Case Study (eftersom artikeln publiceras internationellt, är den på engelska.)
Abstrakt: We present a study of integrating an educational game in special math education, to explore challenges faced during the process. The game promotes an unconventional approach supporting students having math difficulties, through visual representations, learn-by-exploration and learn-by-teaching models. Our conclusion is that integration in special education is more challenging than in the main stream counterpart, due to social vulnerability of the students, learning/teaching challenges in content, motivation and attitude, a non-typical learning situation, and the challenge of matching learning peers. » Läs mer
- Publicerat 2010, Sep 28
Till APLEC konferensen International Workshop on Adaptation and Personalization in E-B/Learning using Pedagogic Conversational Agents, in Hawaii, USA, presenterade Lena Pareto följande artikel 2010: A Teachable Agent Game for Elementary School Mathematics promoting Causal Reasoning and Choice (eftersom artikeln publiceras internationellt, är den på engelska.)
Abstrakt: We describe a mathematics computer game for children designed to promote causal reasoning, choice-making, and other higher-order cognitive activities. The game consists of a choice-based board game, enhanced with a conversational, teachable agent, taught to play the game, by the child, through demonstrations and questions. Game design is motivated by causal reasoning theory and educational psychology. The game is currently evaluated in an ongoing large-scale study that seeks to investigate the game’s effects on the players’ abilities to reason and make productive choices. The study involves 20 elementary-school classes at different levels. » Läs mer på s.18
- Publicerat 2010, Jun 20
Till AIED International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, in Brighton, Storbritannien, presenterade Lena Pareto med kollegorna Daniel L. Schwartz från Stanford University, USA och Lars Svensson från Högskolan Väst, följande artikel 2009: Learning by guiding a teachable agent to play an educational game (eftersom artikeln publiceras internationellt, är den på engelska.)
Abstrakt: Teachable agents are used to support transfer of game playing knowledge to domain knowledge for an educational, arithmetic game. A pre-posttest experiment study show promising learning effects for low ability students. » Läs mer
- Publicerat 2009, Jul 6
Till AIED International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, in Brighton, Storbritannien, presenterade Lena Pareto följande artikel 2009: Teachable Agents that Learn by Observing Game Playing Behavior (eftersom artikeln publiceras internationellt, är den på engelska.)
Abstrakt: An educational game in mathematics targets cognitive skills oincluding pattern finding and generalization from example by teaching an agent. These can be difficult for young children, let alone teaching about them. Therefore, we have designed a new way of teaching an agent, the teach-by-guiding model. We describe the model and its basic implementation. Because this is a work-inprogress, we end by raising questions of how such an agent is perceived, and in what respect it may differ from other pedagogical agents. » Läs mer på s.31
- Publicerat 2009, Jul 6
Till LearnIT konferensen Game in ´Action i Göteborg, presenterade Lena Pareto följande artikel 2007: Utility Games: gaming as a design strategy to achieve utility effects (eftersom artikeln publiceras internationellt, är den på engelska.)
Abstrakt: The objective of this study is to introduce the concept of utility games, to develop a characterization of such a game category, and to explore design and evaluation issues particular for this category. By utility games, we refer to games predominantly designed for utility purposes, and where gaming is viewed as a design strategy to achieve the utility. Four utility games were analysed, with the following dimensions: the overall context, the utility objective, the game setting, evaluations performed and challenges related to design and evaluation. The analysis shows that the utility aspects and the game design are highly interrelated and affect each other on all levels of the design, and that evaluations of utility games have many dimensions to consider. A summary of lessons learnt and some recommendations to utility game designers are provided. » Läs mer
- Publicerat 2007, Jun 13
Till ACM SIGACCESS konferensen Conference on Computers and Accessibility in Baltimore, USA, presenterade Lena Pareto följande artikel 2005: Graphical Arithmetic for Learners with Dyscalculia (eftersom artikeln publiceras internationellt, är den på engelska.) Abstrakt: We propose a model for arithmetic, based on graphical representations, to complement the symbolic language of mathematics. The focus is conceptual understanding of arithmetic. We argue that the graphical model supports understanding concepts known to be difficult for learners with dyscalculia, such as number-sense and decimal system. The proposed graphical representation share properties of the decimal system, but is closer to the semantic representation of numbers vital to the number-sense. The model is evaluated with school-children, but needs to be further tested by learners with dyscalculia. » Läs mer
- Publicerat 2005, Okt 9
Till EDMEDIA-konferensen World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications in Lugano, Schweiz, presenterade Lena Pareto följande artikel 2004: The Squares Family: A Game and Story based Microworld for Understanding Arithmetic Concepts designed to attract girls (eftersom artikeln publiceras internationellt, är den på engelska.)
Abstrakt: To address the matter of children’s lacking understanding of arithmetic concepts, we have designed an educational environment, a microworld, which we believe stimulate self-regulation and reflective cognition. The microworld is based on an analogical, constructive representation, where mathematical objects and operations are translated into graphical objects and animations. The microworld contains a story, and combined card- and board games. The story is about the Squares Family. It has three purposes: to explain the graphical model; to introduce the games; and to give an understanding of the concepts involved. The purpose of the games is to allow children to use the graphical model and to practice important aspects of arithmetic. The games focus on concepts, not computations, and encourage own discoveries. The combination of a story-based microworld with games shows potential for providing an effective learning environment. The microworld is developed with user-centred design, and there is a prototype in Java. » Läs mer
- Publicerat 2004, Jun 21